Job Analysis and Job Description
In simple terms, job analysis may be understood as a process of collecting information about a job. The process of job analysis results in two sets of data:
i) Job description and
ii) Job specification.
These data are recorded separately for references.
Let us summaries the concept of Job Analysis:
A few definitions on job analysis are quoted below
1. Job analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of a specific job. The immediate products of this analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.
2. Job analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It is a basic technical procedure, one that is used to define the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job.
3. A job is a collection of tasks that can be performed by a single employee to contribute to the production of some products or service provided by the organization. Each job has certain ability recruitments (as well as certain rewards) associated with it. Job analysis is the process used to identity these requirements.
Specifically, job analysis involves the following steps:
1. Collecting and recording job information
2. Checking the job information for accuracy.
3. Writing job description based on the information
4. Using the information to determine the skills, abilities and knowledge that are required on the job.
5. Updating the information from time to time.
Job Analysis, A process of obtaining all pertaining job facts is classified into two i.e. Job Description and Job specification
Job Description is an important document, which is basically descriptive in nature and contains a statement of job Analysis. It provides both organizational information’s (like location in structure, authority etc) and functional information (what the work is).
It gives information about the scope of job activities, major responsibilities and positioning of the job in the organization. This information gives the worker, analyst, and supervisor with a clear idea of what the worker must do to meet the demand of the job.
Who can better describe the characteristics of good job description?
Earnest Dale has developed the following hints for writing a good job description: –
1) The job description should indicate the scope and nature of the work including all-important relationships.
2) The job description should be clear regarding the work of the position, duties etc.
3) More specific words should be selected to show:-
a) The kind of work
b) The degree of complexity
c) The degree of skill required
d) The extent to which problems are standardized
e) The extent of worker’s responsibility for each phase of the work
So we can conclude by saying that Job description provide the information about the type of job and not jobholders.
USES OF JOB DESCRIPTION: –
Now we will see why job description is necessary in an organization,
There are several uses of job description, like
• Preliminary drafts can be used as a basis for productive group discussion, particularly if the process starts at the executive level.
• It helps in the development of job specification.
• It acts as a too during the orientation of new employees, to learn duties & responsibilities. It can act as a basic document used in developing performance standards.
Contents of Job Description :
Following are the main content of a job description it usually consist of following details or data.,
Job Description: A statement containing items such as
• Job title / Job identification / organization position
• Job summary
• Machines, tools and equipment
• Materials and forms used
• Supervision given or received
• Working conditions
Job identification or Organization Position: – This includes the job title, alternative title, department, division and plant and code number of the job. The job title identifies and designates the job properly. The department, division etc., indicate the name of the department where it is situated and the location give the name of the place.
Job Summary: – This serves two important purposes. First is it gives additional identification information when a job title is not adequate; and secondly it gives a summary about that particular job.
Job duties and responsibilities: – This gives a total listing of duties together with some indication of the frequency of occurrence or percentage of time devoted to each major duty. These two are regarded as the “Hear of the Job”.
Relation to other jobs: – This gives the particular person to locate job in the organization by indicating the job immediately below or above in the job hierarchy.
Supervision: – This will give an idea the number of person to be supervised along with their job titles and the extent of supervision.
Machine: – These will also gives information about the tool, machines and equipment to be used.
Working Conditions: – It gives us information about the environment in which a jobholder must work.
Hazards: – It gives us the nature of risks of life and limb, their possibilities of occurrence etc.
Job Specification translates the job description into terms of the human qualifications, which are required for performance of a job. They are intended to serve as a guide in hiring and job evaluation.
Job specification is a written statement of qualifications, traits, physical and mental characteristics that an individual must possess to perform the job duties and discharge responsibilities effectively.
In this, job specification usually developed with the co-operation of personnel department and various supervisors in the whole organization.
Job Specification Information: –
The first step in the programme of job specification is to prepare a list of all jobs in the company and where they are located. The second step is to secure and write up information about each of the jobs in a company. Usually, this information about each of the jobs in a company. Usually this information includes:
1. Physical specifications: – Physical specifications include the physical qualifications or physical capacities that vary from job to job. Physical qualifications or capacities
2. Include physical features like height, weight, chest, vision, hearing, ability to lift weight, ability to carry weight, health, age, capacity to use or operate machines, tools, equipment etc.
3. Mental specifications: – Mental specifications include ability to perform, arithmetical calculations, to interpret data, information blue prints, to read electrical circuits, ability to plan, reading abilities, scientific abilities, judgment, ability to concentrate, ability to handle variable factors, general intelligence, memory etc.
4. Emotional and social specifications: – Emotional and social specifications are more important for the post of managers, supervisors, foremen etc. These include emotional stability, flexibility, social adaptability in human relationships, personal appearance including dress, posture etc.
5. Behavioral Specifications: – Behavioral specifications play an important role in selecting the candidates for higher-level jobs in the organizational hierarchy. This specification seeks to describe the acts of managers rather than the traits that cause the acts. These specifications include judgments, research, creativity, teaching ability, maturity trial of conciliation, self-reliance, dominance etc.
Employee Specification: –
Job specifications information must be converted into employee specification information in order to know what kind of person is needed to fill a job. Employee specification is a like a brand name which spells that the candidate with a particular employee specification generally possess the qualities specified under job specification.
Employee specification is useful to find out the suitability of particular class of candidates to a particular job. Thus, employee specification is useful to find out prospective employees (target group) whereas job specification is useful to select the right candidate for a job.
Uses of job specification: –
Uses of this job specification;
• Physical characteristics, which include health, strength, age range, body size, weight, vision, poise etc.
• Psychological characteristics or special aptitudes:- This include such qualities as manual dexterity, mechanical aptitude, ingenuity, judgment etc.
• Personal characteristics or fruits of temperament – such as personal appearance, good and pleasing manners, emotional stability, aggressiveness or submissiveness.
• Responsibilities: – Which include supervision of others, responsibility for production, process and equipment, responsibility for the safety of others and responsibility for preventing monetary loss.
• Other features of a demographic nature: Which are age, sex, education, experience and language ability.
• Job specifications are mostly based on the educated gneisses of supervisors and personnel managers. They give their opinion as to who do they think should be considered for a job in terms of education, intelligence, training etc.
• Job specifications may also be based on statistical analysis. This is done to determine the relationship between
1. Some characteristics or traits.
2. Some performance as rated by the supervisor