On the Job Training’s: These methods are generally applied on the workplace while employees is actually working. Following are the on-the-job methods.
Advantages of On-the-Job Training:
- It is directly in the context of job
- It is often informal
- It is most effective because it is learning by experience
- It is least expensive
- Trainees are highly motivated
- It is free from artificial classroom situations
Disadvantages of On-the-Job Training:
- Trainer may not be experienced enough to train
- It is not systematically organized
- Poorly conducted programs may create safety hazards
On the Job Training Methods
1. Job Rotation: In this method, usually employees are put on different jobs turn by turn where they learn all sorts of jobs of various departments. The objective is to give a comprehensive awareness about the jobs of different departments. Advantage – employee gets to know how his own and other departments also function. Interdepartmental coordination can be improved, instills team spirit. Disadvantage – It may become too much for an employee to learn. It is not focused on employees own job responsibilities. Employees basic talents may remain under utilized.
2. Job Coaching: An experienced employee can give a verbal presentation to explain the nitty-gritty’s of the job.
3. Job Instruction: It may consist an instruction or directions to perform a particular task or a function. It may be in the form of orders or steps to perform a task.
4. Apprenticeships: Generally fresh graduates are put under the experienced employee to learn the functions of job.
5. Internships and Assistant-ships: An intern or an assistants are recruited to perform a specific time-bound jobs or projects during their education. It may consist a part of their educational courses.
6. Off the Job Training’s: These are used away from work places while employees are not working like classroom training’s, seminars etc. Following are the off-the-job methods;
Advantages of Off-the-Job Training:
- Trainers are usually experienced enough to train
- It is systematically organized
- Efficiently created programs may add lot of value
Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training:
- It is not directly in the context of job
- It is often formal
- It is not based on experience
- It is least expensive
- Trainees may not be highly motivated
- It is more artificial in nature
Off the Job Training Methods
1. Classroom Lectures: It is a verbal lecture presentation by an instructor to a large audience. Advantage – It can be used for large groups. Cost per trainee is low. Disadvantages – Low popularity. It is not learning by practice. It is One-way communication. No authentic feedback mechanism. Likely to boredom.
2. Audio-Visual: It can be done using Films, Televisions, Video, and Presentations etc. Advantages – Wide range of realistic examples, quality control possible,. Disadvantages – One-way communication, No feedback mechanism. No flexibility for different audience.
3. Simulation: creating a real life situation for decision-making and understanding the actual job conditions give it. Following are some of the simulation methods of trainings
a. Case Studies: It is a written description of an actual situation and trainer is supposed to analyze and give his conclusions in writing. The cases are generally based on actual organizational situations. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Role Plays: Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships. Attitudinal change is another result. These are generally used in MDP.
b. Sensitivity Training’s: This is more from the point of view of behavioral assessment, under different circumstances how an individual will behave himself and towards others. There is no preplanned agenda and it is instant. Advantages – increased ability to empathize, listening skills, openness, tolerance, and conflict resolution skills. Disadvantage – Participants may resort to their old habits after the training
4. Programmed Instructions: Provided in the form of blocks either in book or a teaching machine using questions and Feedbacks without the intervention of trainer. Advantages – Self paced, trainees can progress at their own speed, strong motivation for repeat learning, material is structured and self-contained. Disadvantages – Scope for learning is less; cost of books, manuals or machinery is expensive.
5. Computer Aided Instructions: It is extension of PI method, by using computers. Advantages – Provides accountability, modifiable to technological innovations, flexible to time. Disadvantages – High cost.
6. Laboratory Training
Barriers to Effective Training:
1. Lack of Management commitment
2. Inadequate Training budget
3. Education degrees lack skills
4. Large scale poaching of trained staff
5. Non-coordination from workers due to downsizing trends
6. Employers and B Schools operating distantly
7. Unions influence
How To Make Training Effective?
1. Management Commitment
2. Training & Business Strategies Integration
3. Comprehensive and Systematic Approach
4. Continuous and Ongoing approach
5. Promoting Learning as Fundamental Value
6. Creations of effective training evaluation system